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This is an indicator of collagen preservation (20).

The results show that only one bone point sample (Vi-3446) had sufficient levels of nitrogen to warrant full sampling for collagen extraction and AMS dating; the remainder failed and therefore were not sampled further (, Table S1).

The mitochondrial DNA sequence of Vi-207 was identical to Vi-33.25 and Feldhofer 1 mitochondrial genomes, whereas Vi-*28 had an identical mitochondrial sequence to Vi-33.17 (, Fig. Both Vi-33.25 and Vi-33.17 were found in layer I of Vindija Cave.

As previously published, Vi-33.19 has the same mitochondrial sequence as Vi-33.16 (22).

The different sample pretreatments are also indicated in Table 2.

Vi-208 and Vi-207 produced hydroxyproline dates of 42,700 ± 1,600 and 43,900 ± 2,000 B. These ages are significantly older than any of the dates obtained previously for these specimens using the AG (gelatinized filtered collagen) and AF (ultrafiltered collagen) procedures, and this strongly suggests that noncollagenous high molecular weight contaminants, probably crosslinked to the collagen, were still present in the sample previously dated.

Unfortunately, there was insufficient collagen remaining from this sample after pretreatment. The majority of the 383 samples we analyzed yielded poor collagen preservation, which prevented any identification to genus or taxon.

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) High-resolution photographs of the Vi-*28 Neanderthal bone found using Zoo MS.Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.Vi-207 is a right posterior mandible and Vi-208 is a parietal fragment, both showing Neanderthal-specific morphology (11, 12). This would imply a more extensive temporal overlap between Neanderthals and early modern humans in central Europe than has recently been documented (4).We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) to find additional hominin remains.We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).

) High-resolution photographs of the Vi-*28 Neanderthal bone found using Zoo MS.Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.Vi-207 is a right posterior mandible and Vi-208 is a parietal fragment, both showing Neanderthal-specific morphology (11, 12). This would imply a more extensive temporal overlap between Neanderthals and early modern humans in central Europe than has recently been documented (4).We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) to find additional hominin remains.We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).Radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal remains recovered from Vindija Cave (Croatia) initially revealed surprisingly recent results: 28,000–29,000 B. This implied the remains could represent a late-surviving, refugial Neanderthal population and suggested they could have been responsible for producing some of the early Upper Paleolithic artefacts more usually produced by anatomically modern humans.